Tech ! Reviews

All About Sand Casting Types, Process & Advantages

What is Sand Casting?

Sand casting, also known as sand molded casting, is one of the most common forms of metal casting and accounts for most cast prototypes. In this process, metals are heated to the point that they melt, and One can modify their chemical composition. Once the metal melts, the molten metal is poured into a sand mold shaped to the desired specifications of the manufactured prototype.

In sand casting, molten metal is first poured into an expendable sand mold cavity, solidifying to form the cavity shape part. The 3D object created by this process is called casting. Engine blocks and cylinder heads are the most common types of sand casting.

To produce the best quality sand castings at the lowest possible cost, the Sand casting company must give careful attention to several process requirements and understand the limitations of sand casting. There are eight critical elements of sand casting: draft angle, parting line, undercuts & cores, cross-sections, wall thickness, corners & angles, junction design, and casting allowance that needs to be considered. 

Process of Sand Casting

Sand casting is done by following steps —

➔ A wooden pattern is created

➔ The design is placed into the flask, and the mixture of sand and clay with water is poured into it. 

➔ The runner, riser, core, and gating system fit into it.

➔ When the mold gets hard, the pattern is removed, and molten metal is poured into it.

➔ Then the metal is allowed to solidify into the casting

➔ Finally, the cast is removed by breaking the mold and sent to the machine shop for machining.

Characteristics of Sand Casting

Sand casting is one of the most versatile manufacturing methods. Since it 

gives engineers the freedom to design complex parts from an unlimited number of metals and alloys, 

➢ More than 70% of all metal castings are produced by sand casting.

➢       Sand casting company have these casting in various sizes, from small statues to parts weighing over 100 tons. 

➢ One can make complex parts quickly and in one piece via this process.

➢ Low dimensional accuracy

➢ Poor surface finish

➢ Sand casting is Highly adaptable and could be used for handling mass production

Advantages of Sand Casting

The sand casting process is widely distributed in the industry due to its numerous advantages over other types of the casting process. Today we will discuss the benefits of Sand casting —

❖ Sand casting can be used to make virtually any size part from a gun trigger to an engine block – if the suitable mould is fabricated.

❖ Sand casting can be used to create even the very complex parts using correct cores or gating systems.

❖ Sand casting is highly adaptable and can be implemented in the bulk production of parts.

❖ As long as they melt and are pourable, One can cast all types of alloys in the sand casting process.

❖ Since cand casting involves just sand and reusable patterns, the cost of the equipment is low and affordable.

❖ The short lead time to make the moulds makes it ideal for fast production runs.

❖ It has a low set-up cost and is cost-effective to modify.

Applications of Sand Casting

It is pretty tough to say how many different technologies use sand casting. Its versatility as a casting process makes it ideal for almost any complex part, and nearly every modern technology benefits from this manufacturing process. Sand casting is ideally preferred for making low and medium volume production castings. We have tried to list only a few of the products fabricated using the sand casting process, which shows just how varied the possible applications can be.

● Sand casting is used to create products like — 

● Many kinds of pistons and valves

● Blowers/impellers

● Cams, bushing, and bearings

● Electronic equipment

● Gas/oil tanks

● Most hardware

● Engine blocks

● Automobile parts

● Air compressor piston

● Screws, nuts, and gears

● Agricultural machines

● Medical equipment

● Mining equipment, etc.


Due to its varied uses, the Sand casting company faces a considerable hike in demand for sand casting. Defects or disadvantages will be an issue only if it affects the functionality of the parts, so it is necessary to select the suitable manufacturing process that is vital to satisfy the domain functional requirement.

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